Thursday, December 08, 2005

Synthesis Exam Practice

Now, through the world, sometimes governments practice nuclear testing. They say we need this testing to understand the influence and power of nuclear energy and it is safe for humans. But, Soloman (2001) says that actually there are residents near this site where these testing are practice, so these people have possibilities to get damage from this practice. Now, there are some reasons to oppose this acts, and we should think whether this act really has necessity.

First, some people say there are some damages to do this practice. According to Libertarian Party Press release (1997, par.3), “government nuclear tests exposed people in five states to enough radiation to cause lethal thyroid cancer.” So it is fact that these tests give us very serious damage that becomes illness. In some countries, governments practice nuclear test not in their own country but in other countries that they occupy. Even though we do not have enough knowledge, we should not practice this act anymore.

Second, and also, we do not have necessity to do that. Evenson (2004) says that we do not have to do practice this act anymore. It is already enough. The United States has enough information about that by a lot of nuclear tests until now. Getting some damage, we do not need to keep this practice.

Then, at last, this act gives risks not only for humans but also for our environment. According to Batt (2002, p.1), “ Peggy May Johnson, executive director of the Nevada environmental group Citizen Alert, opposes an accelerated schedule for nuclear testing because of concerns about Southern Nevada’s groundwater.” The
pollution from this nuclear tests spreads to soil and water. This causes not only illness of human but also the destruction of plants and extinction of species.

This nuclear testing gives huge damage to humans, species and environment. However some governments insist the necessities of this practice; actually there are too much risks to keep. Governments only want to show the power of their military to hostile countries. Giving much damage to surrounding things, we never practice these dangerous acts anymore.

Bibliography

Batt, T. (2002, Apr. 7). Las Vegas Review Journal, p.1.
Evenson, B. (2004, Apr. 18). Salt Lake Tribune, par.6.
Libertarian Party Press release. (1997, Aug. 8). par. 3.
Soloman, N. (2001, Jan. 27). Pravda. RU, p.1.
Research Paper-Garbage Problem in New York City

Now, New York City has become one of the biggest and highest technology cities in the world. But with this development, there are a lot of problems of garbage and pollution, because New York City is not big enough to fit all the buildings, people, and garbage into one city. Every day, a lot of garbage from New York City is carried to landfills in other states. People have a battle over the way they remove it in their city. Then, they transfer their garbage to another place, because this garbage has a very bad and dirty smell for the neighborhood. According to Kugler (2005), there is enormous garbage in New York City, as huge as the weight of the Empire State Building in one week, and this garbage is carried to another place by many trucks which cause air pollution, because New Yorkers cannot dispose of their own garbage by themselves. Naturally, most people are afraid of living near the landfill because of pollution, but some states keep receiving New York City's garbage because they can get some money from New York City. And most people who live near the landfill, the garbage disposal center and the transfer station are in low-income groups, because those places are cheap to live in relatively. This is also serious problem of garbage in New York City.

According to Caruso (2005) and Kugler (2005), to solve this problem, there are some solutions. First, some scientists say that we are already protected from the pollution of the garbage in the landfill, because the landfill has protective liners. They prevent the pollutants in the garbage from escaping to the ground, and we do not get a bad smell or see it directly. But they also have some troubles. That is, liners cannot keep forever, and rotting boards cause a stench, so we have to remove vapors from the garbage. Jones (2005) says, the mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg, proposed that they create their own waterside transfer stations. This plan can reduce the pollution from exhaust of trucks, let the city traffic condition get better, and help protect low-income people from garbage trucks and their fumes. Using barges and the marine transfer stations is one of the good ways to control New York City's garbage and reduce pollution. And the garbage transfer stations should not be in resident areas where children and people of advanced years live. We have to make solutions to manage the huge amount of garbage and its solutions must not cause pollution anymore.

New Yorkers have responsibilities to dispose of their own garbage by themselves and people in other states must not receive garbage from New York City with risk of illness of pollution, and so, we have to devise some effective resolutions.
To solve these problems, I plan three solutions. First, we have to reduce garbage itself. Some garbage can be reused or recycled, so we need to think how to dispose it before we throw it away. But some people throw it away without sorting or they throw away things which they can still use. So naturally the amount of their trash is increasing. All people have to have consciousness to recycle or reuse. To manage their problem of garbage, we have to think not only of the treatment center but also of their way of disposal. The law about garbage disposal on the present government is relatively easy. Even if someone throws away illegal garbage, they may not receive any punishment. According to Canada Newswire (2005), charging a fee by the weight or volume of waste or a partial or full-cost fee on the products leads consumers to recycle or reuse their daily garbage. And Canada Newswire (2005, par.4) also says ÅgActually, when partial or full-unit pricing mechanisms are introduced, the amount of disposed residential waste falls by 8 percent-to-38 percent, and the amount recycled increases, by 6 percent in mature systems to over 40 percent in newer recycling programs.Åh To set strict laws can become effective to reduce our garbage directly. So, we should make a more strict law, like imposing some penalties or fines and charging partial or full-cost fee on the products, to prevent people from throwing away wastefully and making illegal garbage.

And, the recycling campaign by companies or stores is more effective to improve recycling. If we could get some little prizes to recycle from companies or stores, most people would get to recycle more. For example, that is, as often as we recycle containers of the storeÅfs goods, we can get a gift coupon from the store. For that reason, the company or store should make some campaigns, and they can reproduce some merchandise to use this garbage from consumer.

In Japan, it is more developed to recycle or reuse than U.S. Japanese have been taught that to throw away is a bad thing, from their family since they were children. For example, when I was child, our elementary school prohibited leaving our school lunch. So we had to eat everything, even if there was food we disliked for us. Japanese tend to think that throwing away garbage at once is waste and also they can reuse things. These ethics improve their recycling or reusing and make the prompt to reduce their garbage. According to Varney (2005), in the United Kingdom, an association held a campaign to promote recycling or reusing among children. In this campaign, there was a drawing competition of recycling shopping bags among children. This campaign encourages shoppers to stop dumping plastic carrier bags and buy reusable ones, and also this gave a big opportunity to educate children about the environment and recycling. When I was a child, in my hometown, there was a plan to build a noxious industrial waste treatment center and bury wastes in the ground. Naturally, many people were opposed to this plan because it makes air, water and soil pollution. They filed a suit against the company. At last, they won and this plan was broken. Through this event, I was given many opportunities in which I was taught about environmental problems in the earth in elementary school and by my parents. For example, I participated in some meeting to oppose this plan with my parents and there were some classes to educate us about environmental problems in my elementary school. So I can be interested about environmental problems which we faced now. It is very effective that we let children be interested about environmental problems for our future.

Second, we have to work to reduce the garbage before products are made or we get them. For example, we can reduce the wrapping or bags of products. When we get goods from a clerk, sometimes goods are wrapped too much. But after we go back home, these wrappings are only thrown away. This is only waste. According to Japan Economic Newswire (2005, par.7), ÅgRecycling of plastic food containers and wrapping material garbage costs 10 times more -- at 90,000 yen per ton -- than that of plastic bottles for drinks. The main reason is that such things as used ketchup tubes and wrapping film are dirty and take time and money to sort out.Åh So, the company or store has to improve more simple wrapping, and also consumer should reject those with too much wrapping. And not only the wrapping, should companies also think about the product itself. When companies make some products, they need to choose containers or materials which are easy to recycle.

Third, we have to devise ways to dispose of our garbage, and we need to create safe landfills or garbage disposal centers with high technology. We still do not have enough technology to protect from pollution from landfills and garbage disposal centers. To protect us from pollution, at first, we have to make permanent protective liners. If this technology develops, pollutants from garbage would not escape the ground, and also we can prevent water pollution again. And then, we have to improve technology to remove vapors from garbage. It can protect air pollution from garbage. And people who live near the landfills or garbage disposal centers can live more safely. Preventive technology cannot create perfect protective liners and remove vapors completely, so we have to develop our technology as soon as possible to prevent pollution.

But if we do not have enough technology to prevent pollution, we can think about other solutions. For example, the mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg, suggests that itÅfs a good solution to create waterside transfer stations in Manhattan. According to Jones (2005), waterside transfer stations can reduce air pollution that is caused by the exhaust of trucks which carry garbage into other states. If waterside transfer stations were created, they could ship by barge to a nearby landfill, instead of carrying trash by trucks and rail to landfills or incinerators with a lot of exhaust.

We are already faced with this serious problem about our garbage and environment. So, humans have to make some solutions to solve this problem and work on some actions to reduce our garbage which causes pollution immediately. To improve humanÅfs thought about garbage, the government needs to be stricter about illegal garbage or recycling and reusing. And itÅfs more important to teach our children about environment for the future of the earth. Moreover, we have to improve our technology to prevent pollution or we need to devise good ways to transfer New York CityÅfs garbage safety.

You may not see the harm from this garbage problem directly, but it is a fact that there are many people who are suffering from this pollution and our garbage, especially low-income people. This problem is not an alert but a crisis for us. To protect ourselves from this problem, we have to think more about this and look for some solutions. This problem depends on people’s consciousness. People need to start some actions to prevent this. These actions do not have to be big actions, but we can do them in our daily lives. It is important we start to think and work on what we can do now for them. First of all, people have to recycle, reuse or classify their garbage. And then they should think about how to manage their garbage which can’t be recycled or reused. In addition, when we establish a treatment center, we should take care of the neighborhood. Nobody wants to live near the place where they have many possibilities to get ill from pollution. Therefore, we need to improve our technique to manage our garbage without pollution and choose some solutions which let us live safely and with good health.

Bibliography

Canada Newswire. (2005,Aug. 4). Why a paying-to-throw garbage collection system makes sense. Retrieved on Dec. 02, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Caruso, D. B (2005, Jul. 12). As landfills close in big cities, garbage travels farther. The Associated Press State & Local Wire. Retrieved on Oct. 27, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Kugler, S. (2005, Jun. 20). NYC squabbles over daily trash management. Associated Press Online. Retrieved on Oct. 25, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Japan Economic Newswire. (2005, Nov.16). Controversy stirs over plan to burn plastic waste as fuel. Retrieved on Dec. 02, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Jones, C. (2005, Jul. 19). A whiff of politics in Gotham’s garbage, USA TODAY. Retrieved on Nov. 16, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Miller, B. (2000). Fat of the land- Garbage in New York –The last two hundred years. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.

Royte, E. (2005, Sep. 09). Garbage land: On the secret trail of trash. Guardian Weekly. Retrieved on Nov. 02, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Sittamparam, R. (2005, Nov. 09). Soiled diapers in garbage raising a stink. New Straits Times. Retrieved on Nov. 30, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Varney, L. (2005,Oct. 28). Sorcha’s eco-friendly art has recycling contest in the bag. The Scotsman Publication. Retrieved on Dec. 02, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Wednesday, November 30, 2005

Immigration in U.S

Summary:
FAIR suggests that they have to make more effective laws to prevent illegal immigration. However, the White House sais that we should receive illegal ailens as guest workers. They oppose this because they think we have to think about our security of borders and we have to make more effective laws to prevent illegal immigration. And then this has to be more clear by the president, and we have to let people understand that no one can get any profit to enter U.S illegaly.

Response:
Illegal immigration has affected the country especially for job oppotunities because there might be illegal immigrants taking over jobs illegally. So I also think the U.S has to make more effective laws to prevent or control illegal immigrants. In Japan, recentry, there are a lot of cases by illegal immigrants, for example, murder, theft and kidnapping. Actually I don't know how much Japan has strict laws against illegal immigrants, but we have to think about this problem more carefully to prevent illegal immigrants and protect our lives from these terrible cases caused by this problem.

Tuesday, November 15, 2005

Argument Essay

Garbage Problem in New York City

Every day, a lot of garbage from New York City is carried to landfills in other states. According to Sara Kugler (2005), there is enormous garbage, as huge as the weight of the Empire State Building in one week, and this garbage is carried to another place by many trucks, because New Yorkers cannot dispose of their own garbage by themselves. Naturally, most people are afraid of living near the landfill because of pollution, but some states keep receiving New York City’s garbage because they can get some money from New York City. According to David B. Caruso (2005) and Sara Kugler (2005), to solve this problem, there are some solutions. First, we are already protected from the pollution of the garbage in the landfill, because the landfill has protective liners. They prevent the pollutants in the garbage from escaping to the ground, and we do not get a bad smell or see it directly. But these have also some troubles. That is, liners cannot keep forever, and rotting boards cause a stench, so we have to remove vapors from the garbage. Second, the mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg, proposed that they create their own waterside transfer stations. This plan can reduce the pollution from exhaust of trucks, let the city traffic condition get better, and help protect low-income people from air pollution.

New Yorkers have responsibilities to dispose of their own garbage by themselves and people in other states must not receive garbage from New York City with risk of illness of pollution, and so, we have to devise some effective resolutions.

Now, New York City has become one of the biggest and highest technology cities in the world. But with this development, there are a lot of problems, of pollution and garbage, because New York City is not big enough to fit all the buildings, people, and
garbage into one city. So I plan three solutions. First, we have to reduce garbage itself. Some garbage can be reused or recycled, so we need to think how to dispose it before we throw it away. The law about garbage disposal on the present government is relatively easy. Even if someone throws away illegal garbage, they may not receive any punishment. We should make more strict law, like imposing some penalties or fines, to protect from throwing away and making a illegal garbage. And, the campaign by companies or stores is more effective to improve recycling. If we could get some little prizes to recycle from companies or stores, most people would get to recycle more. For that reason, the company or store should make some campaigns, and they can remake some merchandise to use this garbage from consumer. In Japan, it is more developed to recycle or reuse than U.S. Japanese have been taught that to throw away is bad thing, from their family since they were children. So Japanese tend to think that throwing away garbage at once is waste and also they can reuse things. These ethics improve their recycling or reusing and make the prompt to reduce their garbage.

Second, we have to work to reduce the garbage before products are made or we get them. For example, we can reduce the wrapping or bags of products. When we get goods from a clerk, sometimes goods are wrapped too much. But after we go back home, these wrappings are only thrown away. This is only waste. The company or store has to improve more simple wrapping, and also consumer should reject those with too much wrapping.

Third, we have to devise ways to dispose of our garbage, and we need to create some safe landfills or garbage disposal centers with high technology. We still do not have enough technology to protect from pollution from landfills and garbage disposal centers. To protect us from pollution, we have to make permanent protective liners. If this technology develops, pollutants from garbage would not escape the ground, and also we can prevent again water pollution. And then, we have to improve technology to remove vapors from garbage. It can protect air pollution from garbage. And, people who live near the landfill or garbage disposal center can live more safely.

We are already faced with this serious problem about our garbage and environment. So, humans have to make some solutions to solve this problem and work some actions to reduce our garbage which causes pollution immediately. To improve human’s thought about garbage, the government needs to be more strict about illegal garbage or recycling and reusing. And also, we have to improve our technology to prevent pollution. You may not see the harm by this garbage problem directly, but it is fact that there are many people who are suffering from this pollution and our garbage. People need to start some actions to prevent this. These actions do not have to be big actions, but we can do them in our daily lives. It is important we start to think and work on what we can do now for them.

References:

Caruso, D. B. (2005, Jul. 12). As landfills close in big cities, garbage travels farther. The Associated Press State & Local Wire. Retrieved on Oct. 27, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Kugler, S. (2005, Jun. 20). NYC squabbles over daily trash management. Associated Press Online. Retrieved on Oct. 25, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Monday, November 14, 2005

Reseach Proposal

Garbage Problem in New York City

I was interested in the disposal of garbage in New York City. Because, in my home town, Japan, there were some garbage problem when I was child, I am concerned about the pollution and the disposal of garbage. Every day, a lot of garbage from New York City is carried to landfills in other states. According to Sara Kugler (2005), there is enormous garbage, as huge as the weight of the Empire State Building in one week, and this garbage is carried to another place by many trucks, because New Yorkers cannot dispose their own garbage by themselves. Naturally, most people are afraid of living near the landfill because of pollution, but some states keep receiving New York City’s garbage because they can get some money from New York City. According to David B. Caruso (2005) and Sara Kugler (2005), to solve this problem, there are some solutions. First, we are already protected from the pollution of the garbage in the landfill, because the landfill has protective liners. They prevent the pollutants in the garbage from escaping to the ground, and we do not get a bad smell or see it directly. But these have also some troubles. That is, liners cannot keep forever, and rotting boards cause a stench, so we have to remove vapors from the garbage. Second, the mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg, proposed that they create their own waterside transfer stations. This plan can reduce the pollution from exhaust of trucks, let the city traffic condition get better, and help protect low-income people from air pollution.
.
Now, New York City has become one of the biggest and highest technology cities in the world. But with this development, there are a lot of problem, of pollution and garbage, because New York City is not big enough to fit all the buildings, people, and
garbage into one city. But New Yorkers have responsibilities that to dispose of their own garbage by themselves, and people in other states must not receive garbage from New York City with risk of illness of pollution. So I plan three solutions. First, we have to reduce garbage itself. Some garbage can be reused or recycled, so we need to think how to dispose it before we throw it away. Second, we have to work to reduce their garbage before products are made or we get them. For example, we can reduce the wrapping or bags of products. Third, we have to devise how to dispose our garbage, and we need to set some safety landfill or garbage disposal center with high technology.

I have found several articles that give background information on the garbage disposal in New York City, and have found a useful website that helps to describe the problem. I am still looking for some solutions to improve this problem.

References:

Caruso, D. B. (2005, July. 12). As landfills close in big cities, garbage travels farther. The Associated Press State & Local Wire. Retrieved on Oct. 27, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Kugler, S. (2005, Jun. 20). NYC Squabbles Over Daily Trash Management. Associated Press Online. Retrieved on Oct. 25, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis.

Wednesday, November 02, 2005

Summary/ Response #2

How to Deal with Garbage in New York City

Every day, 50 thousand tons of trash is carried from New York City to landfills in other states. This garbage is being put in the landfills. Most people are afraid of living near the landfill because of pollution. But some states keep receiving New York City’s garbage because they can get some money from New York City. Then, there are some arguments whether the landfill is safe for residents and nature or not. Some people say that we are protected from pollution, because the landfill has protective liners. They prevent pollutants in the garbage from escaping to the ground. And we don’t get a bad smell or see it directly. But there are some problems. First, these protective liners can’t last forever. Second, there is the fact that rotting boards cause a stench, so we have to remove vapors from the garbage. Now although there are many discussions about how to deal with garbage of New York City, New Yorkers don’t see the consequence of their own garbage.

Today, in the world, humans made a lot of garbage throughout the world, especially in a big city like New York City. New York City’s garbage is so massive that it needs to be disposed to other states, having a lot of pollution through the community, and damaging the environment. So after we create a lot of creative and useful things to the world that helps our human lifestyle, we realized we have created a bigger problem to damage our human society and lifestyle, which is garbage.

Since New York City is one of the biggest cities in the world with a lot of pollution, so there would be a big amount of garbage throughout the city. But New York City is not big enough to fit all the buildings, people, and garbage into one city, so instead
they have to transfer the garbage to other states such as New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania,Virginia and South Carolina. People in these states are complaining to their government. Each day, trains and trucks carry 50,000 tons of trash from New York City to the huge landfills of other states.

The second thing that is bad is the pollution, which is the largest damage that we have throughout the world, not just New York City. The pollution is not only bad for our lives but also it is bad for our environment and the atmosphere. And those people who live near the landfill are going to breathe some polluted air and see nasty things, and finally live an unhealthy life.

Last, the garbage that we throw on the street or any other garbage is damaging to our environment. Kids can be breathing bad smells from the garbage and can’t have a clean community while they are growing up. Also the garbage will be put into the incinerators and its bad chemical smoke would be made and flow back up to the sky, which damages the earth’s atmosphere. And it would make us have more skin cancer due to the ultraviolet rays from the sun, and that really damages our environment.

Recently, in the world, humans make a lot of garbage and the amount is still increasing. For example, New York City has such massive amounts of garbage throughout the city. So, the mayor has to transfer that garbage to the landfills of other states, having a lot of pollution through the community, and damaging the environment. None of the above is what we really want for the community because everyone wants to live better and healthier.




Reference: Caruso, D,B. (2005, July 12). As landfills close in big cities, garbage travels farther. The Associated Press State & Local Wire. Retrieved on Oct, 27, 2005, from Lexis-Nexis

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

Personal Heroes-Audrey Hepburn

Article Title
Betrayal:A Report on Violence Towards Children in Tpday's World Introduction by Audrey Hepburn

Why Audrey Hepburn is My Hero
Because she tried to help many children who are struggling with poverty or illness.

A Very Very Brief Summary
This article about Audrey Hepburn's report on violence towards children in today's world, which she talked about how people or kids struggling with their lives as we move into the 21st century. And she also talked about how Caroline Moorehead has gathered together the reports of abused children throughout the world.

Monday, October 31, 2005

Summary/ Response #1

Garbage Disposal in New York City

In New York City, there is enormous garbage and this garbage is carried to another place by many trucks. People have a battle over the way they remove it in their city. Then, they transfer their garbage to another place, because this garbage has a very bad and dirty smell for the neighborhood and causes air pollution. Naturally, New Yorkers have to manage their problem by themselves. So, Mayor Michael Bloomberg thought some solutions to solve it. He proposed that they create their own waterside transfer stations in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Queens. This plan can reduce the pollution from the exhaust of trucks, let the city traffic condition get better, and help low income people from air pollution.

The garbage transfer stations should not be in resident areas where children and people of advanced years live. We have to make solutions to manage the huge amount of garbage and its solutions must not cause more pollution for people.

Nobody wants to live near the garbage transfer stations and risk their lives because of their pollution. To save everyone from the pollution, we have to think out better solutions and we need to think about the future. In Japan, there was a problem like this, and the problem was about noxious industrial wastes. In my home town, there was a plan to build a noxious industrial waste treatment center. Naturally, many citizens were opposed to this plan. And they filed a suit against the company. At last, they won and this plan was broken. So, we have to devise not only the way we can remove garbage but also the way we can help people from pollution.

It’s also important to reduce garbage itself. Some garbage can be reused or recycled. But some people throw away without sorting or they throw away things which they can still use. So naturally the amount of their trash is increasing. All people have to have consciousness to reuse or recycle. To manage their problem of garbage, they have to think not only of the treatment center but also of their way of disposal.

This problem depends on people’s consciousness. First of all, people have to reuse, recycle or classify their garbage. And then they should think about how to manage their garbage which can’t be reused or recycled. In addition, when we establish a treatment center, we should take care of the neighborhood. Nobody wants to live near the place where they have many possibilities to get ill from pollution. Therefore, we need to improve our technique to manage our garbage without pollution and chose some solutions which let us to live safely and with good health.

Reference: Kugler, S. (2005. Jun. 20). NYC Squabbles Over Daily Trash Management. Associated Press Online. Retrieved on Oct, 25, 2005. from Lexis- Nexis.